Learning supposes no unified theory, and it remains mysterious to a large extent, as does the nature of experience itself.
Theorists, practitioners, teachers, philosophers and psychologists hover about these two elephants of human nature unable to bring back a comprehensive account of the strange result of both and both when entangled with each other. Learning happens and it is amazing regardless of the incapacity of any theory to aptly frame or characterize it.
This is especially so at the level of cognition and neurophysiology. Any act of learning refers to the raw stuff of mental life, yet learning remains undefined in material terms precisely because consciousness itself eludes elucidation at this basic level. One way to think about this aside from the wonderful dialectic theorization provide may be concisely supposed: that consciousness is learning.